Plastic Surgery Research Council
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Presenter: Kevin T Paik, A.B.
Co-Authors: Chung MT, Hu MS, Lo DD, McArdle A, Hyun JS, Montoro DT, Walmsley G, Senarath-Yapa K, Zimmermann AS, Sorkin M, Rennert R, Liu C, Chen HH, Chung AS, Longaker MT, Wan DC
Stanford University

Background: Due to significant resorption rates (20-80%) with autologous fat grafting, there is a need to develop techniques that increase the retention of graft volume over time. Yoshimura previously investigated the efficacy of supplementing fat grafts with ASCs, a strategy known as cell-assisted lipotransfer. The present study took a more targeted look at this strategy by enriching supplemental ASCs for BMPR-IA, a marker associated with enhanced adipogenic capacity.

Methods: BMPR-IA+ and BMPR-IA- ASCs were sorted using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). After treatment with adipogenic differentiation media in vitro for seven days, Oil Red-O staining and quantification were conducted on both subpopulations, as was qRT-PCR (AP2, LPL, and PPAR-?). Resistance to lipolysis and the proliferative capacity of mature adipocytes, co-cultured with BMPR-IA+ and BMPR-IA- cells, were measured by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) enzyme and an XTT assay. In vivo, human fat grafts prepared from lipoaspirate samples using the Coleman technique were injected subcutaneously into the scalps of nude mice with BMPR-IA+ ASCs, BMPR-IA- ASCs, or without ASCs (n=4 per group). Micro-CT was performed immediately, and every two weeks for eight weeks. Fat volume was rendered by reconstructing a 3D surface through cubic-spline interpolation.

Results: BMPR-IA+ cells showed higher adipogenic gene expression in qRT-PCR. Oil Red-O staining and quantification showed more lipid droplet formation in BMPR-IA+ cells. XTT and G3PDH assays revealed that mature adipocytes experienced greater cell proliferation and less cell death when co-cultured with BMPR-IA+ cells than with BMPR-IA- cells or alone. Over the course of eight weeks, the BMPR-IA+ enriched fat grafts were found to consistently show greater volume retention than either the BMPR-IA- enriched fat grafts or fat grafts alone.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that subpopulations of ASCs may be identified with enhanced adipogenic capacity and suggest potential clinical benefit in performing cell-assisted lipotransfer with BMPR-IA+ cells for soft tissue augmentation.

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